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What is arthritis, and how to find out about it?

Arthritis is a disorder that causes stiffness, pain, and swelling around or in the joints. It is caused by disease, infection, genetic anomalies, and other factors. The inflamed joint causes stiffness, pain, and swelling in the joint itself and to other surrounding tissues. Arthritis pain and inflammation for most people cannot be avoided as the body ages. Generally, people over the age of 40 show some of the signs of arthritis because the joint naturally degrades over time. Arthritis is one of the causes of stability among people over the age of 50. Arthritis cannot be cured and is a long-term disease that can only be managed by treating its symptoms.

  • Exercise according to the recommendation of your doctor
  • Avoid stress on your joints that are affected by arthritis
  • Stay informed and read the news by reputable organizations such as the National Institute of Health or Arthritis Foundation

What are the Types of Arthritis?

  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis.
  2. Osteoarthritis.
  3. Gouty Arthritis
  4. Psoriatic Arthritis

1.  About Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic immune disease, with repeated illnesses. The length of the illness varies, sometimes it does not heal for a lifetime, and sometimes it develops suddenly. The majority of patients are women over forty years old. Rheumatoid arthritis usually affects the joints, such as small joints and large joints, and the upper limb joints are more commonly affected.

Symptoms :

  • When I wake up in the morning, my joints are extremely stiff, and I need to move for 30 minutes to get better. This situation will last more than six weeks.
  • The limbs (especially the small joints of the hands and feet, which occur symmetrically on both sides) joints are red, swollen, hot, and painful. Severe patients can cause muscle atrophy and joint deformation.
  • Rheumatoid factor was found in the blood test.


This is caused by the abnormal response of the immune system that attacks the joints. During the attack, the synovial membrane of the small joints becomes inflamed, and the cartilage and bone tissues in the joints are destroyed. Rheumatoid arthritis affects not only the joints but also the tissues of the body including internal organs such as the heart, lungs, muscles, blood, vessels are affected.

Drug Treatment:

Rheumatoid arthritis cannot be cured. The first treatment is to reduce pain and damage and maintain its normal function. RA is a regardless of the type of arthritis, inflammation treatment is still based drugs, from aspirin to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids, although can reduce pain, stiffness and inflammation sense of efficacy, but long-term use, However, it may cause some side effects, such as 'tinnitus', 'gastric ulcer', gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric bleeding or perforation, insomnia, etc. The patient should be aware of it. When symptoms of discomfort appear, they should immediately inform the doctor to reduce the dose or change the drug. Remember not to take the medicine by yourself because it will delay your illness.

Surgical treatment:

If the joint is severely deformed and the medicine fails, the doctor will use the replacement of the artificial joint to treat it.


If you don’t see a doctor early, the complications caused by rheumatoid arthritis are very serious, such as subcutaneous nodules, dryness syndrome, pulmonary fibrosis, apoptosis, proteinuria, vasculitis In severe cases, the blood, respiratory system, nervous system, and heart will worsen.


  • Take care of yourself Rest and a nutritious diet can help control the condition. (plagiarism check)
  • Normal diet food should be taken of moderate light, may make up a multi-vitamin A, C, D, E, or containing calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, and other minerals food groups in order to enhance immunity and tissue oxygenation or preventing anemia.
  • Physical therapy helps improve the range of motion of the joints and it also increases muscle strength as well as reduces pain. Exercising in warm water makes your muscle relax and relieves joint pain. Heat and cold treatments can also relieve pain and inflammation. You can do hot and cold compress at home by using either ice packs or moistened towel.
  • Go to the doctor for regular check-ups. If you find the above symptoms, you should inform the doctor immediately.

2. About  Osteoarthritis.

This is the most common type of arthritis. It is also known as "degenerative joint disease" which usually affects the weight-bearing joints such as the fingers, knees, and hips. It is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage and its adjacent bones, causing joint pain and stiffness, which are more common in the elderly.  but not all of them would get the symptoms of arthritis.


  • *Pain symptoms occur slowly and can be aggravated by increased activity.
  • *I get up in the morning and have joint stiffness, which gradually disappears after exercise.


The most likely cause is abnormal synthetic cartilage components, such as abnormal collagen and mucin. Overgrowth of bone at the edges of joints, forming osteophytes, causing uneven joint surfaces. As the smooth cartilage surface becomes rough and uneven, the structure of the joint is changed, and the function of the joint is disturbed, causing pain.

Drug treatment:

When weight loss and exercise are not effective in reducing the symptoms of osteoarthritis, the doctor may recommend medications. These medications are used to reduce the pain and tenderness of the joints. Topical pain relievers have lesser side effects compared to oral medications. Some of these topical medication creams contain "Salicylates" and "Capsaicin". 

  • Topical creams need to apply for at least 3 to 4 times daily and they should be used regularly.
  • 'Hyperthermia' can be used. Medications are secondary to the treatment plan, using painkillers such as acetaminophen and aspirin. When joints are inflamed, swollen, and painful, 'corticosteroids' can be injected directly into the joints for treatment to relieve the symptoms in the short term.
  • operation treatment. Consider joint replacement surgery.


The main goal for arthritis treatment is the reduction of pain and stiffness. Weight loss and exercise are usually recommended first for arthritis treatment. If exercise and weight loss do not powerfully reduce the symptoms of arthritis, medication is usually recommended next. The best option for severe and disabling arthritis would be surgery.

  • Weight Loss:

If you are overweight, you are probably putting extra pressure on your joints and it could increase your risk of having osteoarthritis. A person once suffering from osteoarthritis and moreover overweight at the same time would have a quick rate of joint wear and tear, this condition would worsen the symptoms of arthritis. Losing weight would help in relieving the strain on your joints and moreover reduce the wear and tear on the tissues inside the joint. You can maintain a healthy weight by eating less and exercising increasingly often. A healthy diet consisting of foods that are low in fat and high in fiber should be the bulk of your diet

  • Exercise:

Regular exercise is very useful in relieving pain and stiffness caused by osteoarthritis. Exercise could also help in the slow progression of this disease. The maintenance of a healthy weight can be achieved easily by exercising regularly. Exercise makes the muscle that supports the joints stronger and keeps the joints protected from further damage. Exercise also makes your joints more flexible and enables you to move without pain. Recommended exercises for people suffering from arthritis include a combination of stretching, simple muscle strength training, and low-impact aerobics exercise. Example: (weight lifting, swimming, walking, and cycling.). Your doctor can suggest which exercise best suits your need.

  • Heat and Cold:

Applying Hot and cold compresses are great to use to relieve pain, stiffness, and swelling caused by osteoarthritis. For some persons, applying heat works for them while others require a cold compress. Apply either heat or cold to affected areas for a maximum usage time of 20 minutes. Generally, heat is used to relax the muscles and a hot shower in the morning works well for most people with arthritis. Application of cold compress near a joint reduces pain by numbing that area. You can use ice cubes or reusable cold packs. Do not apply ice directly on the skin because it can cause blistering.

3. About Gouty Arthritis.

In a narrow sense, Gout is sudden arthritis caused by high blood uric acid. This disease is caused by the buildup of uric acid in the body. But in a broad definition, "Gout" is a monosodium urate (uric acid form). crystals that accumulate on the articular cartilage of tendons, joints, and surrounding tissues. Before menopause, women have lower blood uric acid levels than men. Therefore, statistically speaking, men’s blood uric acid levels above 7.0 mg/dl are considered hyperuricemia, while women’s blood uric acid levels are at 6.0. If it is above mg/dl, it is considered hyperuricemia. According to statistics, one in ten patients with hyperuricemia will develop gouty in the future.


The joint lesion sudden swelling and pain. The hallux joint is most vulnerable. In addition, the knee, ankle, wrist, and elbow joints may also be affected. The clinical symptoms of gouty mainly form asymptomatic hyperuricemia first, followed by acute gout attacks, and after repeated gout attacks, uric acid, salt deposits, or tophi are formed, leading to joint deformation, urinary tract stones, and finally kidney disease.


  • The real cause is unknown, but the dysfunction of urate excretion in the body is hereditary.
  • Some gout attacks are caused by the side effects of taking diuretics to treat high blood pressure and heart disease.
  • Indulgent diet, too much fat, and alcohol will increase uric acid and decrease its elimination.

Drug Treatment:

Based on the 2020 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guidelines, acute gout attack is a kind of intolerable pain, so in the acute phase, "analgesic" and anti-inflammatory drugs are used to relieve the patient's pain, but pain relief is only a temporary treatment. Common drugs used to treat this disease include anti-inflammatory and analgesic anti-inflammatory drugs. For patients with repeated attacks, doctors will prescribe some drugs that can control the level of uric acid to help patients reduce the incidence. Effective drug treatment and diet control can avoid complications such as tophi, joint deformation, urinary calculi, and nephropathy. 

The list is never finished and is updated from time to time by scientists and new drugs are introduced in the market. The newer drugs have fewer side effects and are more effective than first-generation anti-rheumatic drugs. Consult your doctor for more information and proper treatment.


  • Avoid eating foods and drinks that have caused seizures.
  • Once the anti-drugs are available, stop taking them immediately.
  • Therefore, patients should drink less alcohol (preferably alcohol), and those who are obese should lose weight.
  • Avoid eating animal offal (such as pig liver, kidney, pig brain), seafood (such as shrimp, oyster, abalone, sardines), yeast-containing food (such as fermented milk), broth and sausages, and eat more vegetables, Fruits, and staple foods (such as rice, noodles, rice noodles), milk products and eggs.
  • Develop the habit of drinking more boiled water, which can promote the excretion of uric acid and reduce the chance of urinary calculi.

 4. About  Psoriatic Arthritis

Psoriatic is a kind of arthritis that is related to psoriasis. Psoriasis arthritis is a long-term disease accompanied by scaly red and white patches that develop on the skin. The cause of psoriasis is an overdriven immune system causing excessive swelling. About 20% of people who have psoriatic arthritis will develop "psoriatic spondylitis" where there is swelling in the spine. Psoriatic Arthritis can affect any joint such as the fingers, knees, and hips in the body.

Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease related to the immune system. WHO statistics show that the disease affects approximately 0.09% to 11.43% of the world's population. It is a serious global problem affecting at least 100 million people worldwide. It is a condition that results in localized or widespread inflammatory scaly skin lesions that can affect any part of the skin. It most often occurs on the scalp, elbows, knees, and shins.


  •  Joint pain, especially with redness, swelling, and tenderness.
  •  Morning stiffness.
  • Red, scaly patches of skin with clearly defined edges in the affected areas
  •  Lesions that occur most commonly on both elbows or both knees, the scalp, and the cleft of the buttocks.
  •  Lesions that appear at sites of injuries to the skin.
  •  Changes in fingernails or toenails, such as pitting, loosening, or thickening.

Below is the following list of  DMARDs (Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs) to be kept in mind

  1. The treatment for psoriatic arthritis depends on the severity of the condition. Basically, management requires treatment for arthritis as well as psoriasis. Treatment generally involves a combination of exercise and medication.
  2. Patient education is another aspect of management that is important as understanding the condition ensures better compliance to treatment and therefore control of psoriatic arthritis.
  3. Conditions that have been reported as accompanying a worsening of psoriatic arthritis include infections, stress, and changes in season and climate. Certain medicines such as beta-blockers (a type of antihypertensive drug) have been reported to trigger or aggravate psoriasis.
  4. Exercise is an important component of treatment. Low-impact exercises such as brisk walking, stretching, swimming, and line dancing will increase mobility and reduce morning stiffness in joints. It also helps maintain a healthy weight, so as to reduce stress on joints, especially at the knees.
  5. Skincare is also key to good management of psoriatic arthritis. Keeping the skin soft and moist is helpful such as applying moisturizers after bathing. Topical creams or moisturizers, such as Vitamin D or a steroid cream, help to keep skin moisturized and prevent drying, flaking, and itching.
  6. Some psoriatic patients may need PUVA (psoralen plus long-wave ultraviolet A light) therapy, which slows cell growth and keeps psoriasis in check. This is a combination of a prescription medicine psoralen, taken either in tablet form or added to a bath, plus exposure to type A ultraviolet light. Therapy usually consists of 20 to 30 treatments over several weeks, under strict medical supervision.
  7. Avoid carrying heavy things or undertake activities that may cause a strain to the affected joints. If the wrist and fingers joints are affected by arthritis, it may be beneficial to wear a splint at night or a working splint during the day for joint support.
  8. People who have psoriatic arthritis can still have a good quality of life. What matters more is having the knowledge to tackle social misconceptions about this condition. People must first know that psoriasis is not infectious.
(This Article Was Reviewed By Our Consultant Physician)

Although traditional medicine considers arthritis incurable. But traditional medicine is the best to prevent further damage to joints or to relieve pain. This has given relief to many people from their symptoms. Know here through dietary changes, natural gout remedies, herbal remedies, nutritional supplementation. Click for More Information... 


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